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Networking Basics

June 10th, 2021

A network is a group of computers, printers, and other devices that are connected together with cables. The sharing of data and resources. Information travels over the cables, allowing network users to exchange documents & data with each other, print to the same printers, and generally share any hardware or software that is connected to the network. Each computer, printer, or other peripheral device that is connected to the network is called a node. Networks can have tens, thousands, or even millions of nodes.

Cabling:

The two most popular types of network cabling are twisted-pair (also known as 10BaseT) and thin coax (also known as 10Base2). 10BaseT cabling looks like ordinary telephone wire, except that it has 8 wires inside instead of 4. Thin coax looks like the copper coaxial cabling that’s often used to connect a VCR to a TV set.

Network Adapter:

A network computer is connected to the network cabling with a network interface card, (also called a “NIC”, “nick”, or network adapter). Some NICs are installed inside of a computer: the PC is opened up and a network card is plugged directly into one of the computer’s internal expansion slots. 286, 386, and many 486 computers have 16-bit slots, so a 16-bit NIC is needed. Faster computers, like high-speed 486s and Pentiums, , often have 32-bit, or PCI slots. These PCs require 32-bit NICs to achieve the fastest networking speeds possible for speed-critical applications like desktop video, multimedia, publishing, and databases. And if a computer is going to be used with a Fast Ethernet network, it will need a network adapter that supports 100Mbps data speeds as well.

Hubs

The last piece of the networking puzzle is called a hub. A hub is a box that is used to gather groups of PCs together at a central location with 10BaseT cabling. If you’re networking a small group of computers together, you may be able to get by with a hub, some 10BaseT cables, and a handful of network adapters. Larger networks often use a thin coax “backbone” that connects a row of 10BaseT hubs together. Each hub, in turn, may connect a handful of computer together using 10BaseT cabling, which allows you to build networks of tens, hundreds, or thousands of nodes.
Like network cards, hubs are available in both standard (10Mbps) and Fast Ethernet (100Mbps) versions.

LANs (Local Area Networks)

A network is any collection of independent computers that communicate with one another over a shared network medium. LANs are networks usually confined to a geographic area, such as a single building or a college campus. LANs can be small, linking as few as three computers, but often link hundreds of computers used by thousands of people. The development of standard networking protocols and media has resulted in worldwide proliferation of LANs throughout business and educational organizations.

WANs (Wide Area Networks)

Often a network is located in multiple physical places. Wide area networking combines multiple LANs that are geographically separate. This is accomplished by connecting the different LANs using services such as dedicated leased phone lines, dial-up phone lines (both synchronous and asynchronous), satellite links, and data packet carrier services. Wide area networking can be as simple as a modem and remote access server for employees to dial into, or it can be as complex as hundreds of branch offices globally linked using special routing protocols and filters to minimize the expense of sending data sent over vast distances.

Internet

The Internet is a system of linked networks that are worldwide in scope and facilitate data communication services such as remote login, file transfer, electronic mail, the World Wide Web and newsgroups.
With the meteoric rise in demand for connectivity, the Internet has become a communications highway for millions of users. The Internet was initially restricted to military and academic institutions, but now it is a full-fledged conduit for any and all forms of information and commerce. Internet websites now provide personal, educational, political and economic resources to every corner of the planet.

Intranet

With the advancements made in browser-based software for the Internet, many private organizations are implementing intranets. An intranet is a private network utilizing Internet-type tools, but available only within that organization. For large organizations, an intranet provides an easy access mode to corporate information for employees.

Ethernet

Ethernet is the most popular physical layer LAN technology in use today. Other LAN types include Token Ring, Fast Ethernet, Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) and LocalTalk. Ethernet is popular because it strikes a good balance between speed, cost and ease of installation. These benefits, combined with wide acceptance in the computer marketplace and the ability to support virtually all popular network protocols, make Ethernet an ideal networking technology for most computer users today. The Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) defines the Ethernet standard as IEEE Standard 802.3. This standard defines rules for configuring an Ethernet network as well as specifying how elements in an Ethernet network interact with one another. By adhering to the IEEE standard, network equipment and network protocols can communicate efficiently.

Protocols

Network protocols are standards that allow computers to communicate. A protocol defines how computers identify one another on a network, the form that the data should take in transit, and how this information is processed once it reaches its final destination. Protocols also define procedures for handling lost or damaged transmissions or “packets.” TCP/IP (for UNIX, Windows NT, Windows 95 and other platforms), IPX (for Novell NetWare), DECnet (for networking Digital Equipment Corp. computers), AppleTalk (for Macintosh computers), and NetBIOS/NetBEUI (for LAN Manager and Windows NT networks) are the main types of network protocols in use today.
Although each network protocol is different, they all share the same physical cabling. This common method of accessing the physical network allows multiple protocols to peacefully coexist over the network media, and allows the builder of a network to use common hardware for a variety of protocols. This concept is known as “protocol independence,” which means that devices that are compatible at the physical and data link layers allow the user to run many different protocols over the same medium.

Topologies

A network topology is the geometric arrangement of nodes and cable links in a LAN, and is used in two general configurations: bus and star. These two topologies define how nodes are connected to one another. A node is an active device connected to the network, such as a computer or a printer. A node can also be a piece of networking equipment such as a hub, switch or a router. A bus topology consists of nodes linked together in a series with each node connected to a long cable or bus. Many nodes can tap into the bus and begin communication with all other nodes on that cable segment. A break anywhere in the cable will usually cause the entire segment to be inoperable until the break is repaired. Examples of bus topology include 10BASE2 and 10BASE5.
10BASE-T Ethernet and Fast Ethernet use a star topology, in which access is controlled by a central computer. Generally a computer is located at one end of the segment, and the other end is terminated in central location with a hub. Because UTP is often run in conjunction with telephone cabling, this central location can be a telephone closet or other area where it is convenient to connect the UTP segment to a backbone. The primary advantage of this type of network is reliability, for if one of these ‘point-to-point’ segments has a break, it will only affect the two nodes on that link. Other computer users on the network continue to operate as if that segment were nonexistent.

Peer-to-Peer Networks

A peer-to-peer network allows two or more PCs to pool their resources together. Individual resources like disk drives, CD-ROM drives, and even printers are transformed into shared, collective resources that are accessible from every PC.

Unlike client-server networks, where network information is stored on a centralized file server PC and made available to tens, hundreds, or thousands client PCs, the information stored across peer-to-peer networks is uniquely decentralized. Because peer-to-peer PCs have their own hard disk drives that are accessible by all computers, each PC acts as both a client (information requestor) and a server (information provider). A peer-to-peer network can be built with either 10BaseT cabling and a hub or with a thin coax backbone. 10BaseT is best for small workgroups of 16 or fewer users that don’t span long distances, or for workgroups that have one or more portable computers that may be disconnected from the network from time to time.

After the networking hardware has been installed, a peer-to-peer network software package must be installed onto all of the PCs. Such a package allows information to be transferred back and forth between the PCs, hard disks, and other devices when users request it. Popular peer-to-peer NOS software includes
Most NOSs allow each peer-to-peer user to determine which resources will be available for use by other users. Specific hard & floppy disk drives, directories or files, printers, and other resources can be attached or detached from the network via software. When one user’s disk has been configured so that it is “sharable”, it will usually appear as a new drive to the other users. In other words, if user A has an A and C drive on his computer, and user B configures his entire C drive as sharable, user A will suddenly have an A, C, and D drive (user A’s D drive is actually user B’s C drive). Directories work in a similar fashion. If user A has an A & C drive, and user B configures his “C:WINDOWS” and “C:DOS” directories as sharable, user A may suddenly have an A, C, D, and E
drive (user A’s D is user B’s C:WINDOWS, and E is user B’s C:DOS). Did you get all of that?

Because drives can be easily shared between peer-to-peer PCs, applications only need to be installed on one computer–not two or three. If users have one copy of Microsoft Word, for example, it can be installed on user A’s computer–and still used by user B.

The advantages of peer-to-peer over client-server NOSs include:
· No need for a network administrator
· Network is fast/inexpensive to setup & maintain
· Each PC can make backup copies of its data to other PCs for security. By far the easiest type of network to build, peer-to-peer is perfect for both home and office use.

Client-Server Networks

In a client-server environment like Windows NT or Novell NetWare, files are stored on a centralized, high speed file server PC that is made available to client PCs. Network access speeds are usually faster than those found on peer-to-peer networks, which is reasonable given the vast numbers of clients that this architecture can support. Nearly all network services like printing and electronic mail are routed through the file server, which allows networking tasks to be tracked. Inefficient network segments can be reworked to make them faster, and users’ activities can be closely monitored. Public data and applications are stored on the file server, where they are run from client PCs’ locations, which makes upgrading software a simple task–network administrators can simply upgrade the applications stored on the file server, rather than having to physically upgrade each client PC.

In the client-server diagram below, the client PCs are shown to be separate and subordinate to the file server. The clients’ primary applications and files are stored in a common location. File servers are often set up so that each user on the network has access to his or her “own” directory, along with a range of “public” directories where applications are stored. If the two clients below want to communicate with each other, they must go through the file server to do it. A message from one client to another is first sent to the file server, where it is then routed to its destination. With tens or hundreds of client PCs, a file server is the only way to manage the often complex and simultaneous operations that large networks require.

Computer Networking is the very important and the crucial part of the Information Technology. Millions of the computers are networked together to form the Internet. Networking plays a important role in every kind of organization from small to medium sized, in Banks, Multinataional Companies, Stock Exchanges, Air Ports, Hospitals, Police Stations

What is Networking?

March 10th, 2021

Quote: Power networking involves the development of a team of powerful, proactive referral partners capable of producing a steady flow of referrals for your business.

In this chapter:

o Examples of power networking

o Defining networking

o 7 Myths and truths about networking

Before we talk about networking, let’s take a look at some examples of the results that some have achieved by applying the principles of effective networking. The examples we cite are mostly from Local Business Network simply because these are the individuals with whom we have worked and whose stories we know. In most cases, you can replace LBN with the words “structured networking organization”.

We share these stories to help you understand how truly powerful networking can be for anyone who is willing to learn the principles of power networking and to apply them consistently. Many who do so achieve rewards totaling hundreds of thousands of dollars. For many, business from referral partners account for 25% to as much as 90% of their sales. We hope these examples will encourage you to read further and to consider seriously the principles we teach.

Website Design Firm Finds Structured Networking its Most Powerful Business Growth Tool

Steve Hyer started IGD Solutions, a website development firm, in 1999. In 2000, he joined Local Business Network, a structured business referral organization. Steve was not only new to business, but new to networking.

For the ensuing three years, LBN referrals accounted for an average of 38% of his business. In real dollars, that amounts to six figures each year. Forming strategic and referral partner relationships with members of his own chapter and with those in other chapters helped Steve create a continuous referral stream and thus a continuous stream of new leads and new clients. Steve found the regional mixers particularly helpful in finding and developing referral partner relationships with those in the technology field.

Steve writes that, “LBN is the single most effective method we have used to promote our business. The structure of meeting twice a month and really focusing on sharing referrals makes it extremely effective.”

From Corporate Cast Off To Successful Business Owner In 1 Year

Mark Raymond was laid off abruptly from his information technology job when his company was bought out. The IT market was slow and Mark knew he needed to find additional sources of income. He knew it takes time to grow any business.

Mark had an entrepreneurial background. He had owned a number of different businesses before, ranging from working as a disc jockey, to being a truck driver, to operating as a multi-media expert with auto shows. Fortunately, he had built a successful real estate rental business and owned more than ten properties. Still he needed to replace his IT income.

Mark joined Pre-Paid Legal Services as an Independent Associate. He focused on the sales aspect instead of building a team, but needed prospects and referral partners. His target markets were companies and small business owners, but he did not know where to start.

His wife, Tricia Raymond, a real estate agent, already belonged to a Local Business Network and she encouraged him to use the networking to promote his business. Mark only knows one way to go – full speed ahead. He became the President of his LBN chapter and aggressively built referral relationships.

Within one year of joining LBN, he sold over 400 Pre-Paid Legal memberships. Nearly half, 180 memberships, came directly or indirectly from LBN. Today he has a rapidly growing nationwide network of business associates helping to grow his business.

Sales Agent for a Title Insurance Company Receives over 60% of Her Business Through Networking Group Referrals

Sandra Maurer enjoyed networking, but didn’t realize how powerful it could be when she joined the Birmingham, MI chapter of Local Business Network. Her sales were strongly dependent on relationships with mortgage lenders, attorneys and real estate agents.

Sandra began visiting as many LBN chapters as she could to meet key referral partners and build relationships. She attended every regional mixer to meet other members and build more relationships. She became an extraordinary referral generator, giving as many as 50 or more referrals every month.

Within two years, the relationships she had built within LBN were generating over 60% of her income. When she changed jobs, she took those relationships with her and had an immediate sales base even though she was selling different products and services.

Accountant Gives and Receives Over $100,000 in Referrals Annually

Norm McKee is an accountant and business consultant. During his first year in LBN, referrals from LBN members accounted for about 25% of his business. The second year it grew to 40%. Partnering with other LBN professionals, he also began an employee benefits firm with the potential to generate even more profit than his already highly lucrative accounting practice.

Norm receives eight to ten new client referrals a month from his referral partners. He receives over $100,000 in referrals annually and gives at least that amount to his referral partners.

Norm says, “We selected LBN as our networking group because of the structured/instructional based program offered, providing all members with basic direction over their networking activities. We found LBN members to understand the importance of relationship marketing and how to utilize relationships to create a marketing avenue for their businesses.

Residential Cleaning and Janitorial Service Reports 90% of Sales Come From LBN Members or Their Referrals

Mary Youtz was downsized by a major software development firm. She had worked in the accounting department in a thankless job for a thankless boss. After being let go, she and her husband started their own business and elected to use networking as their primary means of promoting it.

After six months, the firm was in the black and 90% of sales had come through members of her Local Business Network. Mary immediately recognized the value of visiting as many chapters as possible and became a regular visitor to half-a-dozen chapters in communities near her place of business. She attended every regional networking event and built relationships with those in a position to send her referrals. She brought referrals to every meeting she attended.

Mary also grew personally. She had never been required to speak in public and initially expressed concerns about having to do a sixty second commercial at her local chapter meeting. She quickly outgrew her fear and even became a speaker at regional networking events. Her friends saw an extraordinary transformation in her self-confidence and demeanor. She recently took on a role as an officer in her local chapter.

And there are hundreds of additional stories but we don’t have time to tell them all. Here are some quick recaps of a few more.

o Jim Motley started a new computer repair business with $250,000 in sales his first year largely through referrals; doubled his business the second year; then doubled it again the third year.

o Jeannie Kime, a marketer of promotional items spent two years in another networking organization before joining LBN without much success, then tripled her business in her first year in LBN.

o John Gentilia of Perfect View Blinds reported 35% of his business from LBN referrals his first year, growing to 40% his second year.

o Doris Benson of Comfort Zone Heating and Cooling developed 100 new customers in her first six months in LBN.

o Ed Koerner, a mortgage lender, got 36 referrals in his first six months in LBN.

o Brian Jenks, a commercial lender, received referrals for real estate financing for projects of $12 million and $5 million.

o Sharon Quarters, a Realtor, received leads totaling over $2 million in her first three weeks in LBN.

o Attorney, Brian Rolfe got a lead for a $50,000 client within a few weeks after joining LBN.

o Julie Greene, a financial planner, reported commissions of $20,000 on leads from her LBN group and expectations that that number would double the next year.

We could go on forever with stories of these types, but the important thing to understand is that the principles of power networking work for any legitimate business person, representing a valid product or service that is being marketed to the general public or to other businesses. The question is not whether the system works, but rather whether you are willing to learn and to apply the principles of power networking.

What is Power Networking? Webster’s Dictionary defines networking as, “the developing of contacts or the exchanging of information in an informal network as to further a career.” In its broadest sense, practically any type of social interaction could be considered networking. Most business people are familiar with the informal networking that occurs in Chambers of Commerce and other business organizations. But in a business environment where increased sales are the ultimate objective and “time is money”, informal and unfocused networking is inadequate. It is necessary to move to the description and definition of a more formal and focused type of networking.

Development of Win-win Relationships – In his book, Endless Referrals, Bob Burg defines networking as, “the development of mutually beneficial win-win relationships.” Bob says that, “all things being equal, people will do business with and refer people to those they know, like and trust.” Networking therefore is about developing relationships with others who will do business with you and will send referrals to you because they know, like and trust you. Bob’s goal is to transform networking from an “informal process” to a “formal” process focused on generating referrals that result in sales and increased income.

Note that there is a requirement that the individual giving you the referral first know, like and trust you. It is necessary for you to allow others to get to know you, and they must like what they see and have trust in you before they will send you referrals. When building a referral network it is necessary for you to develop relationships of trust.

Selling Through Networking Partners – Power networking involves selling “through” those who are your networking partners not “to” them. There are two components of the business you derive from networking as Mr. Burg describes it, business from those you know and business from those they know. The latter is far more critical than the former, because the potential represented is hundreds of times greater – assuming every business person knows literally hundreds of people. The ultimate objective of formalized networking is not to sell “to” those who know, like and trust you, but rather to sell “through” them to the hundreds of people they know.

Power networking is therefore selling to people you don’t know with the help and cooperation of those you do know. It is “collaborative marketing” predicated on the assumptions that:

1. With minimal proper training you and a partner can effectively prospect for each other, and that

2. It is easier for each of you to prospect for the other within your sphere of influence than it is for the other person to prospect with those same individuals.

This definition points out another critical aspect of formal business networking. You must train others to promote your business for you. Clearly, however, in order to train others to promote your business, you must first understand how to promote it yourself. Effective networkers must not only understand who their prospects are and how to promote to them, but must also be adept at teaching others how to identify prospects for their products or services and how to create the opportunity to make a presentation to those prospects.

Referral Partners – But why would this person, your friend who is generating referrals for you, want to work so hard to promote your business to others? What is in it for him or her? Obviously, he/she expects something in return and although that reward could take any form, the ideal form of remuneration is the referral of someone who could use his/her products or services. This reciprocity must exist in order for formal networking relationships to endure. And this concept of reciprocity leads us to yet another definition of focused business networking: it is the creation of personal wealth through the capture and exchange of referrals. If you want to receive referrals from others, you must be willing and able to give referrals in exchange for those you receive. If you do not give in return, the relationship will not endure and you will no longer receive referrals.

We refer to these special types of relationships where referrals are exchanged on a regular and ongoing basis as “referral partner relationships”. They are the pot of gold at the end of the rainbow, the mother lode! One such relationship can result in hundreds and even hundreds of thousands of dollars of referrals. The majority of your business networking efforts should be focused on finding and developing these relationships. Several such relationships can result in a flow of referrals sufficient to satisfy your needs for the lifetime of your business.

Strategic Partners – Closely allied to the “referral partner” concept is that of the “strategic partner”. A “strategic partner” is an individual who offers a product or service complementary to your own and who is willing to work together with you to offer your products together or to collaborate on marketing efforts. By collaborating with a “strategic partner”, you can broaden the range of products or services you are able to offer your clients, thereby increasing sales or broadening your customer base or, you can leverage marketing expense through joint marketing efforts, thereby reducing marketing costs or creating the opportunity for marketing efforts you might not otherwise be able to afford. Because they are dealing with the same or similar customers to your own, “strategic partners” can also be “referral partners”.

Traditional Networking versus Power Networking – Traditional networking, a style of networking where you market yourself by allowing others to get to know you and hoping that at some point in time they will either use your products or services or will refer someone else to you, is being replaced by what can be called “power networking”. Power networking is a style of networking where you market your business through the development of powerful, proactive partners who market your business for you in return for your help in promoting their businesses. Structured networking groups, both formal and informal organizations designed to teach referral based networking and to assist in the development of teams of referral partners, have sprung up to assist in this process. In this book, we will explore the nature of structured networking groups and their role in helping you apply the principles of power networking.

Myths and Truths about Networking

Myth #1: Networking is just belonging to a ‘Good Old Boys Club’ and is solely for the purpose of camaraderie and fellowship.

Truth: With proper training, networking can be focused to develop business relationships leading to significant referral business, rather than just meeting other people over a social lunch or at the bar during ‘happy-hour’.

Myth #2: Networking is a waste of productive time.

Truth: Networking with the purpose of developing referral partner relationships can be far more productive than spending time selling. One effective referral partner can result in hundreds or even thousands of sales over the lifetime of the relationship.

Myth #3: Networking is only for aggressive, loud-talking salespeople.

Truth: In networking, aggressive, me-oriented people seldom succeed. They find it difficult to build respect and trust which are the underpinnings of any referral partner relationship.

Myth #4: Networking brings people together who are struggling and have no real influence in the marketplace.

Truth: Networking attracts both successful and experienced business owners and professionals, as well as relatively less experienced individuals. The important point to remember is that everybody has a database of contacts with whom you have interest in connecting.

Myth #5: Networking takes too much time with little or no result.

Truth: Networking is a highly leveraged activity as you meet a number of professionals in a very short time. Those you meet are attuned to the development of referral partner relationships. As illustrated earlier, the results can be extraordinary.

Myth #6: Networking is expensive.

Truth: Networking is one of the least expensive forms of marketing available. Local Business Network (LBN) charges around $30 per month for members. Many members can recoup their expense for an entire year with one good referral. For some, the benefit to cost ratio runs in the hundreds.

Myth #7: Networking is primarily for small, non-professional businesses.

Truth: Networking can benefit all types of businesses. Experienced professionals like accountants and attorneys, technology firms, small retailers, home based businesses and others are a few examples.

Key points:

To summarize what we have learned in Chapter One:

1. Focused business networking involves the development of mutually beneficial win-win relationships called “referral partner relationships”.

2. These relationships are built on trust and involve collaborative marketing to those within each other’s sphere of influence.

3. To be effective, they require education and training on how to recognize prospects and generate referrals.

4. Referral partner relationships must be balanced and require both parties to consistently generate and exchange referrals.

5. Strategic partners are individuals who offer complementary products or services to customers similar to those you serve. Collaboration with them can broaden your product offerings, expand your markets, and create opportunities to leverage marketing expense.

6. Power networking refers to the marketing of your business through powerful proactive “referral” and “strategic” partner relationships.

7. Structured networking groups are designed to help you develop these partnering relationships.

Action Plan:

1. Read Bob Burg’s book Endless Referrals.

2. Take a look at your current business situation. Can networking help you?

3. Are you ready to commit to networking as another way to grow your busines